The 31-year-old, who previously had stints with South African sides Orlando Pirates and Chippa United, returned to Ghana in 2014 and settled at boyhood club Ashanti Gold.
Dauda played a major role as the Miners won the Ghana Premier League title in 2015, their first trophy in more than two decades, but opted not to renew his contract when it expired in September.
He expressed his excitement following a warm reception given to him by the club's executives and supporters, and promised to play a major role to ensure they win the title this season.
“I am pleased to sign for one of the best clubs in Africa with a rich history,” Dauda told reporters.
“I want to thank the general coordinator of Enyimba, Jude Anyadufu, for the warm reception and I promise to repay the club's faith shown in me when the season kicks off. I hope to do more than I did with Ashanti Gold two seasons ago so that we can win the title once more after finishing tenth in the previous NPFL campaign,” he added.
Dauda has become the third Ghanaian player in the Nigerian topflight after goalkeeper Nana Bonsu, who helped Enugu Rangers to win the league title last season and Wilson Andoh of NPFL Super 4 champions Rivers United.
Former Ghana international and Hearts of Oak assistant coach Yaw Preko is currently the acting head coach of Ifeanyi Ubah, following the mutual termination of Kenichi Yatsuhashi's contract.
Dauda boasts of 25 caps for Ghana since making his debut appearance in 2013.