The draw, held on Thursday in Nagoya, Japan, saw this year's Asian Champions League winners pitted against the Confederation of African Football Champions League title-holders.
They will play on December 11 and the winner will face Barcelona in the semi-finals four days later.
"We are very happy with the draw result," Al Sadd director of football Jafal Rashid Al Kuwari told the Fifa following the announcement.
"We want to [defeat Esperance] to give ourselves the opportunity to play against the best team in the world."
The reigning Spanish and European champions last appeared in the 2009 edition of the CWC, which they won to complete a world-record sextuple.
Al Sadd sporting director Mohamed Gholem recognised the significance of the challenges that lie ahead for his club in December.
"It will be a difficult tournament, but Al Sadd will try to show the world how good we are," he said.
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